The article is devoted to the problem of strengthening of the mineral-raw material base of the Ural enterprises at the expense of exploitation of substandard reserves, which currently are of interest to the resumption of mining. The objectivity is shown of transition from opencast method of mining to underground method to ensure the raw material base of mining enterprises. The analysis is introduced of the possibility to use poor-balance and off-balance ore reserves through the development of combined technologies, which have metal leaching as an element. The certificate on the underground leaching of balance ore is given. The idea of technologies integration is formulated; an example of options integration effectiveness calculation is introduced by means of analyzing the production function in modern models of economic growth. The advantages of the technology with leaching in substandard reserves extraction are revealed. It has been proved that the integration of the processes of mechanical activation and chemical leaching makes it possible to extract metals and obtain positive economic effect. Development technologies integration opens up prospects of substandard reserves use and improves the mining enterprises economics. Concentration tailings utilization provides the possibility of voids elimination by laying hardening mixtures, which expands the scope of resource-saving technologies application.
The necessity for the increase in the volume of ore production to satisfy the needs for raw minerals and complication of the conditions of ore deposits development make the search for hardening stowage mixtures production reserves actual, also by means of applying technologies, which change the technological properties of mixtures ingredients. Experiments in the search of efficient technologies of hardening mixtures components activation are aimed at providing the production with cheap and available raw material. The article introduces the results of the first international experimental exploitation of the technology of combined activation of hardening mixtures on an industrial scale in the process of developing metal ore deposit. The flowsheet of a plant for the realization of a new technology is recommended. It has been shown, that the efficiency of hardening mixtures preparation and transportation isn’t merely determined by the interaction of well-known factors, but also by the superposition of the factor of activation. It has been determined that the combination of the methods of the mixtures ingredients activation possesses a range of advantages: possibility to enlarge the raw materials base, the increase of subsoil resources fullness ratio, the possibility to deliver the mixture over a distance, exceeding the critical distance for traditional technologies, which makes it possible to abandon the construction of new stowage facilities. The technologies of stowing with hardening mixtures provide the safety of mining, maximum completeness of utilization, subsoil and environmental protection. Reduction in the cost of mixtures is achieved with the activators application. The use of the desintegration technology provides the increase in the activity of binders.
The article introduces the main scientific and practical results of the development of geoenergetic fundamentals for the underground mining of ore deposits by means of disclosing physical essence of the phenomenon of zonal encapsulation of mine workings. The phenomena, processes and regularities of mine workings encapsulation by an array with the definition of shape, size, number of energy zones, sinusoidal-damped stresses, and annular deformation areas are systematized. An energy theory of the study of the parameters of zonal encapsulation of mine workings has been developed: the shape, size, quantity and conditions for the formation of energy zones and the boundaries of possible destruction of the massif. Power-law dependences of the change in the dimensions of adjacent energy bands are established, the ratio of which is constant from the size and shape, the depth of deposition and the physical properties of the array enclosing the working. The thermodynamic theory of studying the state of the rock massif undisturbed by the excavations has been improved by taking into account the processes of redistribution of geoenergy flows and entropy exchange in an undisturbed massif with the isolation into a separate research method – entropy. The sinusoidal-damped dependence of the autowave oscillations of stresses in the massif disturbed by the workings on the gradients of density, temperature, gas and water saturation of rocks has been specified. Geoenergetic approaches to the selection of traces of preparatory workings, calculation of the parameters of their fastening are recommended. The parameters of performing stoping in energy zones of safety capsules are justified. The estimation of efficiency of geoenergetic technologies and realization of industrial introduction at underground development of ore deposits is introduced.
The article is devoted to the problem of reducing the dilution of metal ore by overlapping and enclosing rock in the production process in underground mining. Some information is given about the state of knowledge of production quality management processes under the development systems with a collapse of ore under the overlapping rocks. Development results are introduced of a complex field structure under a flexible tree-rope and steel cable overlappings. The practice in the application of overlappings of different structures depending on the conditions of development in the uranium-mining industry is described. Overlappings strength determination methods are systematized and typified. For the conditions of polymetallic deposit, economic-mathematical comparison of alternatives with the collapse of the core technology and under the overlapping is fulfilled. The problem of improving the quality indicators of the produced ore are formulated through the separation of ore and rock by the overlappings, including the substantiation of the separation efficiency, optimization of overlappings design for each type differentially, the release of lost ore under the overlappings effectiveness determination, and overlappings structure development. The article systematizes the engineering methods of reducing dilution magnitude with the release of the previously lost ore which are applied in ore mining, also by means of load-bearing and separating overlappings application. It is predicted that the prospects of the direction include bridges cost-cutting through the development of new composite materials. It is shown that improving the quality of previously lost produced ore and ore extracted with overlappings is an essential element of expanding raw-mineral base and mining enterprises economic rehabilitation. The results of the study are of interest to some existing mining enterprises and some mining enterprises under construction.
The article is dedicated to rational schemes of developing ore deposits at large deposits with complex structure for underground mining with the improvement of output ore quality and workplace safety. Critical analysis of patent literature over the use of development schemes at deposits with the same conditions is fulfilled, together with physical modeling of broken ore output conditions at equivalent materials. Complex criterion is formulated to estimate the variants of reserves preparation for stoping with inclined descents, the essence of which reduces to representative and objective estimation of required scope of development mining operations in providing required speed of mining depth increase, capacity of mobile drilling and haulage equipment within a shift, regular aeration of stoping faces, and labour efficiency. Quantitative assessment of level development variants is fulfilled with the optimization of distance between workings and the account of support pressure at the stages of works development. Quantitative results of modeling broken ore output parameters dependencies are introduced. For the conditions in question, optimal variants of development with inclined descents with varied location towards ore deposits are recommended.
The purpose of the given work is to substantiate the possibilities of strengthening the potential of depressed mining enterprises during metals underground mining by the example of the North Caucasian region. The methodology of the given work synthesizes theory and practice of the use of technologies, experiments on metals leaching, and economic estimation of technologies efficiency by means of comparing mineral recovery rate factor using alternative techniques. The article substantiates the priority of combining technologies of poor ores leaching and traditional technologies of rich ore mining. The analysis is fulfilled of mixed technologies application underground mine for commercial ore production, which is the first of a kind in the world practice. The basis for combining traditional and new technologies of ore recovery is examined by means of combining technologies within the limits of a single process. The model of identifying ecological and economic efficiency of deposits exploitation is suggested; the account of the recovered resources completeness lies at the heart of the model. The article introduces the example of determining recurrent extraction ratio when using mixed technologies. Results field of application includes formerly subsidized mining enterprises, which develop metal ore deposits using underground method. Revitalization of profitable metal production at depressed mining enterprises is possible on the basis of traditional and new leaching technologies combination.