Горный журнал УГГУ - Результаты поиска для: Kubarev M. S

The article considers change in the goal orientation of state regulating of subsoil use in the view of the recommendations of Agenda for the 21st century. The documents of conceptual, strategic, and program character are analyzed, starting from 1994, when according to the RF Presidential Decree of February 4, 1994 No. 236, the national strategy of the Russian Federation for environmental protection and sustainable development was ratified, and concluding with the RF Presidential Decree of May 13, 2017 No. 208 on the strategy of ecological security of the Russian Federation. The degree of ecologization of the considered documents is estimated and their correspondence to goals and aims of the transfer to sustainable development. The distribution of activities is analyzed according to the basic directions of plans of actions, aimed at environmental protection, and the capability of their implementation, accounting of ecological factor when substantiating the strategy of economic growth, reflection of the key priorities described by the Ecological Doctrine, etc. The list of claims is formed, asserted to the mechanism of the state regulating of subsoil use. They include insufficient use of economic instrumentation, understatement of geographic knowledge in ecologic protection of subsoil use, lack of development in insurance system and audit in subsoil use, elimination of ecologic funds and understated level of rates on payments for environmental pollution, groundless centralization of mineral resources use taxes, absence of legislatively approved methodological approach to the definition of economic damage, and residual principle of ecological programs financing.

The article substantiates the succession of establishing the system of governmental control over the natural resource management. The first stage is connected with the fragment protection of separate types of plants and animals. The second stage is characterized by grounding for governmental control over the natural resource management, which is connected with the decrees of Peter I. The explosion of interest to natural science at the end of the 19th–beginning of the 20th century lead to the appearance of public interest environmental groups and the creation of private nature reserves. The third stage (after October 1917 events) – is the next attempt of regulating the process of the natural resource management at the governmental level. From 1917 to 1925 more than 230 legislative documents about the natural resource management were published. First special state administrative bodies of ecological orientation emerged. The fourth stage (1950th–1960th) is related to the problem of protection and rehabilitation of human environment. At the legislative level, natural resource problems are generally solved. The fifth stage (1960th–1970th) is defined as the stage of understanding the importance of ecological problems and forming an independent sphere of natural resource management control. The sixth stage (1970th–1990th) the stage of forming specific instrumentation of management, creating independent governmental structure. Independent legislative structure is also formed. The seventh stage (1990th–the beginning of the 21st century) is connected with the activation of ecological activity and the consolidation of the system of governmental control over the natural resource management. However gradually the influence of the government declines and the status of the environmental body of the country declines. Now it is referred to the eighth stage and the necessity for governmental control from the position of the basic positions of biospheric conception.

The article examines one of the topical issues of the modern world – the accumulation of industrial and consumption waste, and their negative impact on human health and environment. The solvation of the problem under consideration can be the organization of waste management, which primarily determines the sources of waste formation, the volume of their formation and classes of hazard. The waste cadastres contain the fullest code of information data. Their classification plays important role for the creation of cadastres and the substantiation of the directions of waste utilization; the classification should contain physical and technical characteristics of waste, data about the conditions of their development, ecological and economic utilization efficiency, possible markets, etc. Summary and analysis of common and individual classifications of technogenic-mineral formations are fulfilled. The authors classification of technogenic-mineral waste is suggested, which introduces the range of factors and features influencing technical and economic indices of technogenic-mineral formations exploitation (TMF) and the determination of the other ways of the further TMF flow (transfer to the other enterprises, conservation, burial, etc.). The said factors and features are clustered into seven groups: industrial, physical and geographic, physical and technical, chemical, ecological, the factor of TMF state of knowledge, and economic. The classification contains groups of features, significant for the development of technical and economic substantiations: according to water conditions, the use of contaminants in the technology of mining and concentration, prevailing rock influencing the state of TMF in waste dumps and storages. The classification also contains subgroups of features on the physical and technical characteristics with definite indices, acquired under the study of TMF. The given classification may serve as a sufficiently reliable instrument in the substantiation of the directions of mineral waste utilization.