The present work considers the problems of mining lost ore reserves out of protection pillars, which were unprofitable to develop before. At present time due to the deterioration of mining and geological conditions, it is sometimes economically reasonable to return to the previously mined sections and develop the pillars at the upper horizons which were preserved under the exploitation. These pillars usually have over 25% of balance reserves of metallic ore, up to 60–70% of potassium salts and more than 30% of coal. The technology of mining these pillars plays important role under the assessment of the possibility of their excavation, because the protection pillar, as a rule, represents highly fissured and tectonically disturbed ore massif. When mining protection pillars two situations are possible: in the first one – strength characteristics of ore body are significantly higher than strength and stability of enclosing rock; in the second one – strength characteristics of enclosing rock are significantly higher than the characteristics of ore massif. Taking into account all stated by the authors, it is suggested to fulfill the excavation of reserves out of protective pillars with chamber systems of development with preliminary strengthening of enclosing rock in the first situation, and in the second situation – perform it under the protection of concrete support created in ore body in the shape of volumetric grating. The suggested technology has been tested at Berezovsky deposit and Zyryanovsky lead plant. The results of the investigations permit to recommend the technology developed by the authors to be used at other enterprises with similar mining and geological conditions.
The article considers the problems of the analysis of association links in the sphere of subsoil use, which help to determine and explain the nature of relations between the notions within the limits of the system of subsoil use. The analysis is introduced of causal relationships between the interdisciplinary approach in the solution of the problem of subsoil use and the possibility of actually complex solution of eco-economic and social problems; the explanation to this relation is represented by application examples (the deposit of copper-nickel ore in Voronezh region and the deposit of copper ore near Chelyabinsk). Causal relationship is studied between the admission the natural (ecological) factor as the higher priority and possible practical realization of the conception of sustainable subsoil use; the explanation to this realization is given through the hierarchy of the levels of subsoil use control (conceptual, ideological, political, and economic). The analysis is introduced of the causal relationship between the degree of taking into account the time factor and the formation of ecological, social, economic, and technological problems in the sphere of subsoil use. Association link is studied between the action and the result in the sphere of subsoil use; the reason for the absence of innovations in the sphere of refining complex is explained and the low application level of the majority of subsoil use resources. The analysis is introduced of the relationship between the materials (subsoil use resources) and their potential production.
Imitation modeling program algorithm is in the basis of foundation ditch fencing wall anchor support construction calculation; the program fulfills quantitative estimation of reliability and risk of underground facilities construction. The main estimation method is simulation testing according to Monte Carlo method, which is realized in the mode of automated application program and test files in QBasic programming language. On this basis, machine oriented procedure of flexible retaining constructions design has been worked out, which helps to make efficient probability analysis of loads upon the bearing construction, sliding surface locations and anchor supporting nodes stability. Risk degree determination when designing stable flexible retaining constructions of foundation ditches for urban underground constructions which are built with opencast mining method is extremely topical issue. Evident way of the said problem solution is formalization of risk-analysis, which includes the development of geotechnical situation modeling method by average values of input data.
The article examines the problems of sustainable land use in industrial regions; system of notions about land in the sphere of sustainable land use is introduced. The methodology of sustainable land use is examined on the basis of maintaining required level of biotic environmental control, hierarchy of control levels of sustainable land use (conceptual, ideological, political, and economic) and scientific-technological principles of sustainable land use in industrial regions. The principles include the substantiation of strategic priorities and indicators of sustainable land use in industrial regions; complex (ecological-economic) estimation of land resources with the account of industrial production peculiarities; determination of “corridors” of allowable land use in industrial regions; co-ordination of individual interests of land users with social preferences; multicriterion optimization of land use on the basis of ecological-economic and social indicators. The examined interdisciplinary approach with the use of strict mathematical formalization of social-ecological-economic processes in the sphere of land use will help to take into account modern challenges, reduce risks, and mitigate the consequences of negative situations.
The article is dedicated to the problems of correlation and interrelation of individual interests of different subsoil users and public preferences in the sphere of subsoil use on the basis of conception of ecologically stable development of territories. Basic types and correlations of individual and public interests at subsoil use are introduced. The principle of mutual decision making is examined over the question of bowels use and management, which takes into account interests of government, regions where the bowels sections are situated, and subsoil users. The analysis of determining discounting revenue of individual subsoil users is introduced; the method of determining discounted subsoil use effect size on the basis of long-term ecological-economic aftermath value is suggested. The analysis of individual subsoil users discounting market rate and public preferences discounting rate is introduced. Basic methodological positions of multicriterion optimization of correlation of individual interests and public preferences which are the alternative to unregulated market relations in subsoil use.
The article examines the methods of complex solution of ecological-economic and social problems when mining deposits and processing technogenic deposits. The methods are based on the highest priority of ecological factor and on the hierarchy of control levels over the stable territories development. The hierarchy of control levels over the ecologically stable subsoil use includes conceptual, ideological, political and economic levels. Conceptual level of control over the subsoil use is a fundamental control link which sets basic goals for a long-term period of time. Ideological level of control over the subsoil use determines main direction and the ways of implementing conceptual links in a given business line, ecologization of public conscience in particular, manifested in the organization of a more complete and deep processing of the mined mineral resources, and in conscious but not market formation and regulation over consumer demand for mineral resources, metals and various types of articles made of them. Political level of control over the subsoil use intends creation of a corresponding regulatory ground. Fundamental scientific methodological base of complex solution of ecological-economic and social problems of subsoil use rests on the knowledge in ecology (biology), economics, sociology and engineering sciences.
New approach to geomechanical analysis of mining units is implemented by a specialized software package of nonparametric statistics methods. The complex provides quality improvement of source data about the condition of enclosing rocks and properties of rocks according to the data from minor mine workings. The article examines four directions: statistical estimation of rock properties; peculiarities of parameters determination of certificates of rock strength with nonparametric estimation according to the results of field tests at drilling wells; engineering-geological mapping of rock mass; geomechanical models construction on basis of nonparametric statistics methods. The resources of nonparametric statistics are used in simulation models transforming the distribution of input parameters with random number generation from 104 to 106.